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Sugar

 

Sugar is the generalised name for a class of chemically-related sweet-flavored substances, most of which are used as food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose. The table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide (in the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose). Other disaccharides include maltose and lactose. Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Some are used as lower-calorie food substitutes for sugar described as artificial sweeteners.

Sugar

 

Forms and uses

 

Granulated sugars are used at the table to sprinkle on foods and to sweeten hot drinks and in home baking to add sweetness and texture to cooked products. They are also used as a preservative to prevent micro-organisms from growing and perishable food from spoiling as in jams, marmalades and candied fruits.

 

Milled sugars are ground to a fine powder. They are used as icing sugar, for dusting foods and in baking and confectionery.

 

Screened sugars are crystalline products separated according to the size of the grains. They are used for decorative table sugars, for blending in dry mixes and in baking and confectionery.

 

Brown sugars are granulated sugars with the grains coated in molasses to produce a light, dark or demerara sugar. They are used in baked goods, confectionery and toffees.

 

Sugar cubes are white or brown granulated sugars pressed together in block shape. They are used to sweeten drinks.[48]

Liquid sugars are strong syrups consisting of 67% granulated sugar dissolved in water. They are used in the food processing of a wide range of products including beverages, ice cream and jams.

 

Consumption

 

In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy. After cereals and vegetable oils, sugar derived from sugar cane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups. According to the FAO, an average of 24 kilograms of sugar, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day, was consumed annually per person of all ages in the world in 1999. Even with rising human populations, sugar consumption is expected to increase to 25.1 kilograms per person per year by 2015.

Sugar

 

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar